Situated shared practice, curriculum design and academic development

Am currently reading Faegri et al (2010) as part of developing the justificatory knowledge for the final ISDT for e-learning that is meant to be the contribution of the thesis. The principle from the ISDT that this paper connects with is the idea of a “Multi-skilled, integrated development and support team” (the name is a work in progress). The following is simply a placeholder for a quote from the paper and a brief connection with the ISDT and what I think it means for curriculum design and academic development.

The quote

The paper itself is talking about an action research project where job rotation was introduced into a software development firm with the aim of increasing the quality of the knowledge held by software developers. The basic finding was that in this case, there were some benefits, however, the problems outweighed them. I haven’t read all the way through, I’m currently working through the literature review. The following quote is from the review.

Key enabling factors for knowledge creation is knowledge sharing
and integration [36,54]. Research in organizational learning has emphasized the value of practice; people acquire and share knowledge in socially situated work. Learning in the organization occurs in the interplay between tacit and explicit knowledge while it crosses boundaries of groups, departments, and organizations as people participate in work [17,54]. The process should be situated in shared practice with a joint, collective purpose [12,14,15].

Another related quote

The following is from a bit more related reading, in particular Seely Brown & Duguid (1991) – emphasis added

The source of the oppositions perceived between working, learning, and innovating lies primarily in the gulf between precepts and practice. Formal descriptions of work (e.g., “office procedures”) and of learning (e.g., “subject matter”) are abstracted from actual practice. They inevitably and intentionally omit the details. In a society that attaches particular value to “abstract knowledge,” the details of practice have come to be seen as nonessential, unimportant, and easily developed once the relevant abstractions have been grasped. Thus education, training, and technology design generally focus on abstract representations to the detriment, if not exclusion of actual practice. We, by contrast, suggest that practice is central to understanding work. Abstractions detached from practice distort or obscure intricacies of that practice. Without a clear understanding of those intricacies and the role they play, the practice itself cannot be well understood, engendered (through training), or enhanced (through innovation).


I see this as highly relevant to the question of how to improve learning and teaching in universities, especially in terms of the practice of e-learning, curriculum design and academic development. It’s my suggestion that the common approaches to these tasks in most universities ignore the key enabling factors mentioned in the above quote.

For example, the e-learning designers/developers, curriculum designers and academic developers are generally not directly involved with the everyday practice of learning and teaching within the institution. As a result the teaching academics and these other support staff don’t get the benefit of shared practice.

A further impediment to shared practice is the divisions between e-learning support staff, curriculum designers and academic developers that are introduced by organisational hierarchies. At one stage, I worked at a university where the e-learning support people reported to the IT division, the academic staff developers reported to the HR division, the curriculum designers reported to the library, and teaching academics were organised into faculties. There wasn’t a common shared practice amongst these folk.

Instead, any sharing that did occur was either at high level project or management boards and committees, or in design projects prior to implementation. The separation reduce the ability to combine, share and create new knowledge about what was possible.

The resulting problem

The following quote is from Seely Brown and Duiguid (1991)

Because this corporation’s training programs follow a similar downskilling approach, the reps regard them as generally unhelpful. As a result, a wedge is driven between the corporation and its reps: the corporation assumes the reps are untrainable, uncooperative, and unskilled; whereas the reps view the overly simplistic training programs as a reflection of the corporation’s low estimation of their worth and skills. In fact, their valuation is a testament to the depth of the rep’s insight. They recognize the superficiality of the training because they are conscious of the full complexity of the technology and what it takes to keep it running. The corporation, on the other hand, blinkered by its implicit faith in formal training and canonical practice and its misinterpretation of the rep’s behavior, is unable to appreciate either aspect of their insight.

It resonates strongly with some recent experience of mine at an institution rolling out a new LMS. The training programs around the new LMS, the view of management, and the subsequent response from the academics showed some very strong resemblances to the situation described above.

An alternative

One alternative, is what I’m proposing in the ISDT for e-learning. The following is an initial description of the roles/purpose of the “Multi-skilled, integrated development and support team”. Without too much effort you could probably translate this into broader learning and teaching, not just e-learning. Heaven forbid, you could even use it for “blended learning”.

An emergent university e-learning information system should have a team of people that:

  • is responsible for performing the necessary training, development, helpdesk, and other support tasks required by system use within the institution;
  • contains an appropriate combination of technical, training, media design and production, institutional, and learning and teaching skills and knowledge;
  • through the performance of its allocated tasks the team is integrated into the everyday practice of learning and teaching within the institution and cultivates relationships with system users, especially teaching staff;
  • is integrated into the one organisational unit, and as much as possible, co-located;
  • can perform small scale changes to the system in response to problems, observations, and lessons learned during system support and training tasks rapidly without needing formal governance approval;
  • actively examines and reflects on system use and non-use – with a particular emphasis on identifying and examining what early innovators – to identify areas for system improvement and extension;
  • is able to identify and to raise the need for large scale changes to the system with an appropriate governance process; and
  • is trusted by organisational leadership to translate organisational goals into changes within the system, its support and use.


Faegri, T. E., Dyba, T., & Dingsoyr, T. (2010). Introducing knowledge redundancy practice in software development: Experiences with job rotation in support work. Information and Software Technology, 52(10), 1118-1132.

Seely Brown, J., & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation. Organization Science, 2(1), 40-57.

3 thoughts on “Situated shared practice, curriculum design and academic development

  1. nonamuldoon

    An interesting post David, it resonates well with me, particularly this one:

    “For example, the e-learning designers/developers, curriculum designers and academic developers are generally not directly involved with the everyday practice of learning and teaching within the institution. As a result the teaching academics and these other support staff don’t get the benefit of shared practice.”

    Fortunately for me I consciously embed scholarship and research in my practice. In doing so, through partnerships with teaching academics, and in the way I operate in design-based research projects, etc etc, we get the benefit of this shared practice to which you and these authors refer. It is a far richer journey for all concerned, including the students with whom I interact directly during implementation. This approach enables all parties to have input to the way learning and teaching might be shaped.

    This is a lived experience of assuming multiple roles in a reciprocal manner – designer/teacher/surrogate student/researcher – which not only enables shared reflective processes but also evidence-based practice.

    I can already hear you say… this is an isolated case. And I shall respond… perhaps at CQU :) Hence, I commend your suggestions under the heading ‘An Alternative’.

    1. G’day Nona,

      There is much to the type of activities you describe, and which I’ve seen first hand. However, at best I think these practices move you in the right direction while still failing to achieve the benefits that arise from having a system that provides truly shared practice.

      Perhaps the largest limitation in your practice is the situation in which you first encounter students and staff. In the current situation, your first encounter with most staff is one devoid of an established relationship built upon a long period of helping staff in their teaching.

      There are always exception, however, when you look at the majority of teaching staff at an institution they do not have an established relationship with the instructional design/education developers. What worse, is the relationship is usually started by teaching academics being required to interact with instructional designers to achieve some top-down goal that has not been well thought through.

      This isn’t about having a collaborative process of shaping teaching in which all get a voice. It’s about building shared insight, trust and a relationship that can be used more effectively to shape teaching. It’s about having a mechanism of supporting teaching that enables and encourages that sharing to occur with the vast majority of staff, not just the keen few.

      If you like, you could take a George Siemens line and say its about having a process for the “delivery” of everyday teaching and learning that focusing on forming new and improving existing connections between the involved actors.

      The Seely Brown and Duguid quote about “corporate training programs” resonate very strongly with the comments I have heard from a broad array of academic staff who have been through recent LMS training. The superficiality of that training is being followed up with a similar shallowness in the on-going support and change around the LMS.


  2. Pingback: Harnessing learning analytics to inform/improve learning and teaching « The Weblog of (a) David Jones

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