Justificatory knowledge

The following is a first version of the justificatory knowledge section of my ISDT for emergent university e-learning systems. Still fairly uncertain just how information is meant to go in here and also just how far I should go with the reference to other theories (there are lots) and how much time should be spent looking at the interactions between them.

If you have some literature/theories which support or contradict this approach, will be really happy to hear about it.

Justificatory knowledge

The purpose of the justificatory knowledge component is to provide an explanation of why the ISDT is structured as it is and why it should be expected to work appropriately. Much of the justificatory knowledge that underpins this ISDT has been described previously within the literature review (Chapter 2), the first Webfuse action research cycle (Chapter 4), and earlier in this chapter. To avoid repetition this section provides a summary and brief discussion of the justificatory knowledge underpinning the ISDT for emergent university e-learning systems. This summary is linked specifically to the ISDT’s principles for form and function, and principles of implementation.

The justificatory knowledge described below arose from the experiences obtained and literature read during the design and support of Webfuse. This knowledge described below is not necessarily complete or the only established knowledge – theoretical or otherwise – that could be used to justify the principles of the ISDT. Hovorka and Germonprez (2009) identify as a weakness of design research, the lack of guidance around the interaction between the various kernel theories that make up justificatory knowledge and how the influence of these kernel theories may change during use. To some extent, the context-sensitive, emergent nature of the approach embodied by this ISDT – and its kernel theories – means that such advice is embedded in the justificatory knowledge that supports the ISDT.

Justificatory knowledge for principles for form and function

Table 5.20 provides a summary of the justificatory knowledge and is followed by a brief description. For each the three categories of principles of form and function for this ISDT, Table 5.20 provides pointers to sections of this thesis and references to literature that describe the justificatory knowledge in more detail.

Table 5.20 – Summary of justificatory knowledge for principles of form and function
Principle Justificatory knowledge
Integrated and independent services Section 2.3.2 – Software wrappers (Bass, Clements et al. 1998; Sneed 2000)
Adaptive and inclusive architecture Systems of Systems (Perrochon and Mann 1999)
Section 2.3.2 – Best of breed (Light, Holland et al. 2001; Lowe and Locke 2008), Service Oriented Architectures (Chen, Chen et al. 2003; Weller, Pegler et al. 2005), End-user development (Eriksson and Dittrich 2007)
Section 4.4.4 – Micro-kernel architecture (Liedtke 1995)
Scaffolding, context-sensitive conglomerations Constructive templates (Nanard, Nanard et al. 1998) , End-user development (Eriksson and Dittrich 2007)

As summarised in chapter 4, a software wrapper is a type of encapsulation that enables software components to be encased in an alternative abstraction that enables clients, often in a new context, to access the wrapped components services (Bass, Clements et al. 1998; Sneed 2000). As such software wrappers are one example of an approach that provides integrated and independent software services.

Some of the relative advantages and limitations more tightly integrated systems is provided by the enterprise software literature. In this literature, comparisons between tightly integrated systems and best-of-breed approaches have argued that integration involves centralisation of processes and a consequently a tendency to reduce autonomy, increase rigidity, and reduce competitiveness (Light, Holland et al. 2001; Lowe and Locke 2008). The best-of-breed approach, focusing on a more inclusive integration of appropriate packages, increases system flexibility while at the same time requires greater time, skills and resources to integrate diverse applications (Light, Holland et al. 2001). Perrochon and Mann (1999) argue that traditional approaches to system architecture, even those with a focus on adaptivity, are appropriate for greenfield developments due to their reliance on the assumption of design (specify architecture) and then implement. The rise of component-oriented software has created the problem of systems of systems that require the combination of well-engineered components or systems into an overall system they were never, and could never be, designed for (Perrochon and Mann 1999).

The concept of constructive templates (Catlin, Garret et al. 1991; Nanard, Nanard et al. 1998) was developed in response to the difficulty faced by content providers in developing hypermedia structures that followed the known principles of interface and hypermedia design. Constructive templates helped content experts to create well designed hypermedia (Catlin, Garret et al. 1991).

Justificatory knowledge for principles of implementation

The justificatory knowledge for this ISDT’s principles of implementation – summarised in Table 5.21 and briefly described below – draws heavily on what is down about alternatives to traditional, plan-driven software development methodologies as discussed in Section 2.4 and Sections 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 of this chapter.

Table 5.21 – Summary of justificatory knowledge for principles of implementation
Principle Justificatory knowledge
Multi-skilled, integrated development and support team Job rotation, multi-skilling etc (Faegri, Dyba et al. 2010), Organisational learning (Seely Brown and Duguid 1991), Situated learning, Situated action, Communities of practice (Seely Brown and Duguid 1991), Knowledge-based theory of organizational capability (Grant 1996)
An adopter-focused, emergent development process Section 2.4 examines the topic of processes, including a comparison of traditional plan-driven processes (e.g. the SDLC) and learning-focused processes such as emergent development. Additional discussion occurs in Section 5.3.2
Section 5.3.1 introduces the conception of adopter-focused development.
A supportive organisational context Organisational fit (Hong and Kim 2002), Strategic alignment (Henderson and Venkatraman 1993), Bricolage (Chae and Lanzara 2006), Mindful innovation (Swanson and Ramiller 2004)

Seely Brown and Duguid (1991) argue that the tendency for education, training and technology design to focus on abstract representations that are detached from practice actually distort the intricacies of practice and consequently hinder how well practice can be understood, engendered, or enhanced. The idea of the development team integrated and embedded in the everyday practice of e-learning seeks to improve the learning of both academics and students about how to harness e-learning, and also improve the learning of the development team (and the organisation) about how e-learning is being used. The ISDT seeks to establish a process for supporting and developing e-learning which is situated in shared practice with a joint, collective purpose.

Faegri, Dyba et al (2010) argue that turbulent environments increase the importance of employee skills and competences and that having employees cycle through different jobs – such as developers being on helpdesk – can improve knowledge redundancy, organizational knowledge creation, and other benefits. Faegri, Dyba et al (2010) also cite Keil-Slawik (1992) as arguing that full understanding of software requires experience developing the software. The traditional hierarchical structures associated with the division of labour around the e-learning within universities – e.g. helpdesk and developers organized into separate units within an IT division; learning and teaching experts located in another division focused on learning and teaching; and, faculty academics located academic units – are seen by Grant (1996) to inhibit the ability to integrate knowledge from members of an organisation. Such integration is seen as fundamental to the organisation’s ability to create and sustain competitive advantage (Grant 1996).

There is significant literature (March 1991; Baskerville, Travis et al. 1992; Mintzberg 1994; Bamford and Forrester 2003) in a variety of disciplines that identifies plan-driven processes as the dominant approach in most organizations. This and related literature also examines the limitations this over-emphasis suffers, especially in contexts with rapid change or significant diversity (see Section 2.4). Consequently there is significant literature identifying both the theoretical basis and guidance (Introna 1996; Truex, Baskerville et al. 1999) and practical implementation methods (Beck 2000; Schwaber and Beedle 2002) for more emergent or adopter-based development processes.

An emergent, university e-learning information system is a large-scale information system. In this context, “large-scale” is used in the sense adopted by Chae and Lanzara (2006), as referring to systems that involve both organisational technologies and technological innovations that “comprise and connect multiple communities of practice within an organisation or between organistions”. Literature examining success factors with information systems development (e.g. Ewusi-Mensah 1997; Scott and Vessey 2002) has long considered it vital for senior management to be supportive of and committed to systems development. Brown et al (2007) identify commitment – defined as the resources dedicated to IT, organisational dedication to change procedures, and top management support – as one of two most cited problems in the IS projects they examined and identified it as the factor most cited within the literature.

Organisational fit (Hong and Kim 2002) and strategic alignment (Henderson and Venkatraman 1993) between various aspects of an organisation and its information technology systems and processes have long been argued as critical success factors. A similar importance on having an organisational context that is committed and appropriate to information systems development is also found in approaches that are less traditional or teleological (e.g. bricolage and mindful innovation) and have more in common with the emergent, adopter-focused approach advocate in this ISDT. Collective or organisational bricolage requires the combined effort of several individuals and groups (Chae and Lanzara 2006). An organisation which is mindful in innovating with IT, uses reasoning grounded in its own organisational facts and specifics when thinking about the innovation, the organisation recognises that context matters (Swanson and Ramiller 2004). Within mindful innovation, management have a responsibility to foster conditions that prompt collective mindfulness (Swanson and Ramiller 2004).

References

Bamford, D., & Forrester, P. (2003). Managing planned and emergent change within an operations management environment. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 23(5), 546-564.

Baskerville, R., Travis, J., & Truex, D. (1992). Systems without method: the impact of new technologies on information systems development projects. In K. E. Kendall (Ed.), The Impact of Computer Supported Technologies on Information Systems Development (pp. 241-251). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Bass, L., Clements, P., & Kazman, R. (1998). Software Architecture in Practice. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

Beck, K. (2000). Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change: Addison-Wesley.

Brown, S., Chervany, N., & Reinicke, B. (2007). What matters when introducing new information technology. Communications of the ACM, 50(9), 91-96.

Catlin, K., Garret, L. N., & Launhardt, J. (1991). Hypermedia Templates: An Author’s Tool. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Hypertext’91.

Chae, B., & Lanzara, G. F. (2006). Self-destructive dyamics in large-scale technochange and some ways of conteracting it. Information Technology & People, 19(1), 74-97.

Chen, M., Chen, A., & Shao, B. (2003). The implications and impacts of web services to electronic commerce research and practices. Journal of Electronic Commerce Reseaerch, 4(4), 128-139.

Eriksson, J., & Dittrich, Y. (2007). Combining tailoring and evolutionary software development for rapidly changing business systems. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 19(2), 47-64.

Ewusi-Mensah, K. (1997). Critical Issues in Abandonded Information Systems Development Projects. Communications of the ACM, 40(9), 74-80.

Faegri, T. E., Dyba, T., & Dingsoyr, T. (2010). Introducing knowledge redundancy practice in software development: Experiences with job rotation in support work. Information and Software Technology, 52(10), 1118-1132.

Grant, R. (1996). Prospering in dynamically competitive environments: organizational capability as knowledge integration. Organization Science, 7(4), 357-387.

Henderson, J., & Venkatraman, N. (1993). Strategic alignment: Leveraging information technology for transforming organizations. IBM Systems Journal, 32(1), 4-16.

Hong, K.-K., & Kim, Y.-G. (2002). The critical success factors for ERP implementation: an organizational fit perspective. Information & Management, 40(1), 25-40.

Hovorka, D., & Germonprez, M. (2009). Tinkering, tailoring and bricolage: Implications for theories of design. Paper presented at the AMCIS 2009.

Introna, L. (1996). Notes on ateleological information systems development. Information Technology & People, 9(4), 20-39.

Keil-Slawik, R. (1992). Artifacts in software design. In C. Floyd, H. Zullighoven, R. Budde & R. Keil-Slawik (Eds.), Software Development and Reality Construction (pp. 168-188). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Liedtke, J. (1995). On micro-kernel construction. Operating Systems Review, 29(5), 237-250.

Light, B., Holland, C., & Wills, K. (2001). ERP and best of breed: a comparative analysis. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), 216-224.

Lowe, A., & Locke, J. (2008). Enterprise resource planning and the post bureaucratic organization. Information Technology & People, 21(4), 375-400.

March, J. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87.

Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning: Reconceiving roles for planning, plans, planners. New York: Free Press.

Nanard, M., Nanard, J., & Kahn, P. (1998). Pushing Reuse in Hypermedia Design: Golden Rules, Design Patterns and Constructive Templates. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia.

Perrochon, L., & Mann, W. (1999). Inferred Designs. IEEE Software, 16(5), 46-51.

Schwaber, K., & Beedle, M. (2002). Agile Software Development with Scrum. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Scott, J., & Vessey, I. (2002). Managing risks in enterprise systems implementations. Communications of the ACM, 45(4), 74-81.

Seely Brown, J., & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation. Organization Science, 2(1), 40-57.

Sneed, H. (2000). Encapsulation of legacy software: A technique for reusing legacy software components. Annals of Software Engineering, 9(1-4), 293-313.

Swanson, E. B., & Ramiller, N. C. (2004). Innovating mindfully with information technology. MIS Quarterly, 28(4), 553-583.

Truex, D., Baskerville, R., & Klein, H. (1999). Growing systems in emergent organizations. Communications of the ACM, 42(8), 117-123.

Weller, M., Pegler, C., & Mason, R. (2005). Students’ experience of component versus integrated virtual learning environments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(4), 253-259.

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  1. Pingback: Why am I a ePortfolio skeptic? « The Weblog of (a) David Jones

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